Mind is the product of thoughts which are difficult to restrain for they are subtle and fickle. A thought which is well guarded by a controlled mind brings happiness. To get the best out of an instrument, one must know how it works. The mind is the instrument for thinking and it is therefore necessary to consider how it functions. Mental states are classified in five groups. The first of these is the ksipta state, where the mental forces are scattered, being in disarray and in a state of neglect. Here the mind bankers after objects, the rago-guna being dominant. The second is the viksipta state, where the mind is agitated and distracted. Here there is a capacity to enjoy the fruits of one's efforts, but the desires are not marshalled and controlled. Then in the mudha state the mind is foolish, dull and stupid. It is confounded and at a loss to know what it wants and here the tamo-guna predominates. The fourth state of the mind is the ekagra (eka = one; agra = foremost) state, where the mind is closely attentive and the mental faculties are concentrated on a single object or focussed on one point only, with the sattva-guna prevailing. The ekagra person has superior intellectual powers and knows exactly what he wants, so he uses all his powers to achieve his purpose. At times the ruthless pursuit of the desired object, irrespective of the cost to others, can create great misery) and it often happens that even if the desired object is achieved it leaves behind a bitter taste.
Arjuna, the mighty bowman of the epic Mahabharata, provides us with an example of what is meant by dharana. Once Drona - the preceptor of the royal princes - organized an archery contest to test their proficiency. They were called upon one by one to describe the target, which was pointed out to them. It was a nesting bird. Some princes described the grove of trees, others the particular tree or the bough on which the nest stood, When Arjuna's turn came, he described first the bird. Then he saw only its head, and lastly he could see nothing but the shining eye of the bird, which was the centre of the target chosen by Drona.
There is danger, however, of an ekagra person becoming supremely egotistical. Where the senses start roaming unchecked, the mind follows suit. They cloud a man's judgement and set him adrift like a battered ship on a storm tossed sea. A ship needs ballast to keep her on an even keel and the helmsman needs a star to steer her by. The ekagra person needs bhakti (adoration of the Lord) and concentration on divinity to keep his mental equilibrium so that he goes on always in the right direction. He will not know happiness until the sense of ‘I' and 'mine' disappears.